Standardized (formal) assessments are professionally developed tests administered under standard conditions and scored in a consistent manner with the aim of producing scores that can be used to evaluate programs or children. Standardized tests provide a quantifiable method to evaluate all applicants on an equal level (Timperley, 2009). This makes them a valid and reliable system of testing. Informal [authentic] assessments, on the other hand, are not quantifiable. They use content and performance observations instead of data and this enables teachers to focus on the students’ individual needs.
While in school, students are exposed to a lot of activities, including family, friends, school work, leisure, and the school-home environment. These activities can either affect the academic performance of students positively or negatively. As such, the academic performance of a student is as a result of a combination of psychological, socio-economic, and environmental factors. The current study is an attempt to examine the factors that affect the academic performance of student. The role of some of the theories of learning such as habituation, operant conditioning, and social cognitive theory on the academic performance of students will also be examined. Further, the research paper will also attempt to explore ways through which learning among students while on campus can be improved.
Parents and caregivers have long known that the best way to teach good or bad behavior in children is to use a system of punishments and rewards. In this case, when children behave properly, they are rewarded but when they behave badly, they are punished. The current research paper is an attempt to examine the principles of learning used by parents and caregivers to teach good and bad behavior in children. To do so, the writer intends to incorporate such theories of learning as the classical conditioning theory, habituation, observational learning theory, and operant conditioning theory.